Briefing by Deputy Minister Aziz Pahad
at the GCIS Parliamentary Media Briefing: Friday 15
This briefing is taking place, a few days after the
historic UN Millennium Summit, which put the challenges
of Africa high on the international agenda.
In the last few weeks I have visited Latin America
and South East Asia, for bilateral discussions and for
meetings with our heads of missions in the Americas,
Asia and the Middle East.
We openly, frankly and self-critically assessed whether
the Department of Foreign Affairs indeed the South African
government and other NGOs have the capacity to meet
the key objectives of our foreign policies viz the developmental
challenges confronting Africa.
Our starting point was the acceptance of the reality
that foreign policy is a reflection of our domestic
policy and its major objective is to protect our national
interests. Whatever we do either in government or outside
of govenrment must always be premised by the question.
Is it serving the interests of our country and our people?
President John F Kennedy said: "Ask not what the
country is doing for you but what you are doing for
the country". Today the most important challenge
facing us is the consolidation, deepening and strengthening
of our non-racial and non-sexist democracy. To meet
our objectives we must ensure that South Africa achieves
people centred sustainable economic development and
prosperity. Some critical challenges that we will have
to tackle are - how do we ensure that South Africa has
greater market access; greater export possibilities;
greater foreign direct investment; more joint partnerships;
greater technology and skills transfers; greater opportunities
for human resource development; greater overseas development
assistance and of course a greater number of tourists.
As you seek to answer these questions we have to accept
another basic reality, namely, that South Africa cannot
be an island of prosperity in a sea of poverty. Our
future is inextricably linked to what happens in our
sub region, SADC, and the continent of Africa. Therefore,
the African Renaissance is a vision that must underscore
our foreign policy activities. We cant afford
the luxury of making the issue of the African Renaissance
another industry for intellectual debate. The broad
objectives of the African Renaissance have been identified
by the President. Let me outline them. Firstly, the
African Renaissance means the establishment of democratic
political systems in our continent that will ensure
the accomplishment of the goal that the people should
govern and not the elite. Secondly, ensuring that these
systems take into account African specifics so that
while being truly democratic and protecting human rights
they are nevertheless designed in ways which really
ensure that political and peaceful means can be used
to address the conflicting interests of different social
groups in each country. Thirdly establish institutions
and procedures which will enable the continent collectively
to deal with questions of democracy, peace and stability.
Fourthly achieving sustainable economic development
that results in the continuous improvement of the standard
of living and the quality of life of the masses of the
people. Fifthly, qualitatively changing Africa's place
in the world economy so that it is free of the yoke
of the international debt burden and no longer a supplier
of raw materials and an importer of manufactured goods.
Sixthly, ensuring the emancipation of women of Africa
and lastly to successfully confront the scourge of infectious
diseases such as HIV (Aids), Tuberculosis, Malaria etc.
This is the basic outline of what African Renaissance
The Secretary-General of the United Nations recently
said: "the time is long past when anyone could
claim ignorance about what is happening in Africa or
what was needed to achieve progress. The time is also
passed when the responsibilities for producing change
could be shifted to African shoulders. It is a responsibility
that humanity must face together. I believe that the
expansion of the frontiers of peace, democracy and development
in Africa would enrich not only ourselves but the entire
world. This is the challenge that our foreign policy
has to face in the coming millennium. South Africa is
not a European outpost on the African continent. The
success of the African Renaissance will be our success
in South Africa as well. South Africa generally and
the Department of Foreign Affairs specifically have
a historical duty to put the renewal of Africa on the
international agenda. The African Renaissance is not
an event but a process we have no illusions about of
the immense difficulties we face in meeting this challenge.
Clearly we will make progress but we must also be prepared
for setbacks. We must also be realistic and while we
might have long shopping lists of what the African Renaissance
might entail, we must identify and tackle priorities
that we believe will take this process forward.
We must also accept the reality that Africa is not
a homogeneous continent, with the same historic and
geographic conditions, with the same levels of growth
and economic development, with the same levels of democratic
systems with the same levels of commitment of alleviating
poverty and fighting corruption and indeed with the
same commitment to oppose dictatorships military coups
and conflicts. We have to understand the differences
of our continent and begin the processes of identifying
how we deal with the specifics of each country, while
not forgetting the overall challenge facing us. We must
understand that the African Renaissance in essence is
a part of the broader long-term struggle to achieve
a just and new equitable world order. The African Renaissance
is not something separate from our day to day work to
bring about transformation internationally and therefore
in our country itself. And that means that we have to
accept that the African Renaissance cannot be achieved
by Africans alone. To achieve the African Renaissance
we must identify ways to deepen South-South relations
and on the basis of a strong South-South relations,
deepen the South-North relations. Because without achieving
the objectives of South-South relations on the basis
of which we build South-North relations our vision of
an African Renaissance will remain a dream. We are faced
with the reality that we are living in a New World order
that has fundamentally been transformed in the last
few years. It is not just the ending of the cold war
but globalisation has also become a reality. Today very
few of us see globalisation as a conspiracy imposed
on us. We must accept that we cannot roll back nor can
we ignore globalisation. Globalisation has been made
possible by the unprecedented dismantling of barriers
to trade and capital mobility together with fundamental
technological advances and steadily declining costs
of transportation, communication and computers. Globalisation
has resulted in faster economic growth, greater prosperity
accelerated innovation and diffusion of technology and
management skills and new economic opportunities. Since
1950 exports have increased tenfold. Mega multinationals
have become a reality, a recent transnational communications
takeover in the US created a company whose market value
exceeds a GDP of nearly half of all UN members, though
it is only the worlds fourth richest company. Foreign
exchange flows has increased dramatically, it is now
a startling one trillion dollars a day. Those who are
in Asia and experienced the Asian crisis has alerted
the world about the impact of the unprecedented movement
We are experiencing an unprecedented scientific technological
revolution. In 1993 there were 50 pages on the World
Wide Web, today there are more than 50 million. In 1993
143 million people used the Internet, by 2001 there
will be 700 million users. In 1996 e-commerce market
was 2,6 billion dollars it is expected to grow to 300
billion dollars by 2002. There are more computers in
US than in the rest of world put together. The challenge
confronting us in is how do we ensure that globalisation
does not benefit just the few but benefits all, that
peace and security holds not for a few but for the many,
that opportunities exist not merely for the privileged
but for every human being everywhere.
The Secretary General of UN said: "The central
challenge we face today is to ensure that globalisation
becomes a positive force for all the worlds people instead
of leaving billions in squalor and he goes on to say
that inclusive globalisation must be built on the enabling
force of the market but significantly, he mentions that
market forces alone will not achieve it, it requires
a broader effort to create a shared future based on
our common humanity in all its diversities. He then
identified six shared values, freedom, equity and solidarity,
tolerance, non-violence, respect for nature and shared
responsibility. These values in a sense reflects the
essence of the African Renaissance.
The African Renaissance is not some idealistic thing
that we have conjured up. It is in essence, a vision
of a New World order that is more caring and meaningful.
The former Head of the International Monetary Fund,
said: "A new kind of civilization has to be created,
the global solidarity required does not mean offering
something superfluous. It means dealing with vested
interests, certain lifestyles, and models of consumption
and entrenched powers of structures in countries".
What does this mean? It means that we must mobilise
all the forces that in the South and in the North, to
ensure that the developed countries, take certain concrete
the cancellation of all debts of the highly indebted
the taking of extraordinary measures to ensure substantial
increases in foreign direct investments in South Africa
and other African countries; if after the second world
war millions of dollars poured into Europe through the
Marshall Aid Plan, because of the "spectre of communism"
why is it not possible for us to mobilise the same amount
of resources to take Africa out of the dire straits
it is in at the moment. Our objective is a special program
for the African Renaissance.
- to halt the reduction of overseas development assistance.
It is unacceptable that as the developed countries get
richer they cut their development assistance rather
than increase it.
- we must increase our efforts to ensure that there
is greater market access for the products of Africa
including agricultural products. We need to mobilise
against the developed countries policies of agricultural
subsidies, which is helping to sustain their agricultural
sector while keeping the prices at an artificially low
- we must tackle the issue of non-tariff restrictions,
which all developed countries without exception imposes.
- In the globalised world order without getting on
to the bandwagon of the technological revolution we
cannot hope to achieve any successes in our vision of
the African renewal. We must therefore ensure that Africa
receives affordable technology.
"The central challenge we face today is to ensure
that globalisation becomes a positive force for all
the worlds people, while globalisation offers great
opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly
shared, while its costs are unevenly distributed
Only through broad and sustained efforts to create
a shared future, based upon our common humanity in all
its diversity, can globalisation be made fully inclusive
The Summit therefore committed itself to making the
right to development a reality for everyone, and to
freeing the human race from want. It agreed to:-
address the special needs of the least developed countries
at the UN Conference on the least Developed Countries
in May 2001;
to adopt a policy of duty and quote free access for
essentially all exports from the least developed countries;
to implement the programme of debt relief for the heavily
indebted poor countries without delay and to agree to
cancel all official bilateral debts of those countries
in return for their making demonstrable commitments
to poverty reduction;
to grant more development assistance.
The Summit resolved to:
Half by the year 2015 the proportion of the worlds
people whose income is less than one dollar a day, and
who are unable to reach or afford safe drinking water.
To ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and
girls will be able to complete a full course of primary
schooling and that boys and girls will have equal access
to all levels of education.
By 2015 to reduce maternal mortality by ¾ and
under 5 child mortality by 2/3rds of current rates.
By 2015 to have halted and begin to reverse the spread
of HIV AIDS, malaria and other infectious diseases.
An important objective of our foreign policy is the
transformation of multilateral institutions. In the
1930s, the attitude of "Im not my brothers
keeper" or resulted in political revanchism, authoritarianism,
militarism, unprecedented social upheavals and indeed
communism. After the Second World War institutions were
created to prevent this from happening again. The UN,
the Bretton Woods Institution (IMF and the World Bank)
and GATT which is today subsumed by the WTO. These institutions
were created on the reality of an inter-national world
order. Today globalisation has created a global neighbourhood
and like the thirties if and if the uneven development
of globalisation continues the spectre of billions of
the poor becoming ungovernable will become a reality
in the 21 st century. The developed countries are also
beginning to accept that there can be no islands of
prosperity in a sea of poverty. The developed countries
cannot feel secure and they cannot hope to continue
to develop while many other countries in the world get
poorer. There are no borders or walls that can protect
the developed countries from the effects of poverty,
deprivation, infectious diseases, internationally criminal
syndicate, terrorism and environmental degradation.
We are able to challenge the negative impacts of globalisation
given the common shared values everybody is talking
about, i.e. a new world order which is more caring and
more equitable. South Africas foreign policy objective
is to change these multi-lateral institutions so that
they become truly representative of the aspirations
of all, - the powerful and the weak, the big and the
small, the rich and the poor. It is encouraging to note
Summit resolved to:
Spare no effort to make the United Nations a more effective
instrument for pursuing all priorities, viz,: the fight
for development for all the peoples of the world, the
fight against poverty, ignorance and disease; the fight
against injustice; the fight against violence, terror
and crime; and the fight against the degradation and
destruction of our common home.
Summit therefore resolved:
To reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly
as the chief deliberative, policy-making and representative
organ of the United Nations, and to enable it to play
that role effectively.
To intensify our efforts to achieve a comprehensive
reform of the Security Council in all its aspects.
To further strengthen the Economic and Social Council,
building on its recent achievements, to help it fulfil
the role ascribed to it in the Charter.
To strengthen the International Court of Justice, in
order to ensure justice and the rule of law in international
To encourage regular consultations and coordination
among the principal organs of the United Nations in
pursuit of their functions.
To ensure that the Organisation is provided on a timely
and predictable basis with the resources it needs to
carry out its mandates.
To urge the Secretariat to make the best use of those
resources, in accordance with clear rules and procedures
agreed by the General Assembly, in the interests of
all member States, by adopting the best management practices
and technologies available and by concentrating on those
tasks that reflect the agreed priorities of Member States.
To promote adherence to the Convention on the Safety
of United Nations and Associated Personnel
To ensure greater policy coherence and to improve better
cooperation between the United Nations, its agencies,
the Bretton Woods Institutions, and the World Trade
Organisation, as well as other multilateral bodies,
with a view to achieving a fully coordinated approach
to the problems of peace and development.
To further strenghthen cooperation between the United
Nations and national parliaments through their world
organisation, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, in various
fields, including: peace and security, economic and
social development, international law and human rights
democracy and gender issues.
To give greater opportunities to the private sector,
non-governmental organisations and civil society in
general, to contribute to the realisation of the Organisations
goals and programmes.
Specifically in relation to Africa the Summit resolved
To take special measures to address the challenges
of poverty eradication and sustainable development in
Africa, including debt cancellation, improved market
access, enhanced Official Development Assistance (ODA),
and increased flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
as well as transfers of technology.
Build up capacity to tackle the spread of the HIV/AIDS
pandemic and other infectious diseases.
I am proud to say that SA made an important contribution
to these very important decisions of the Millennium
The South African Government is accused of "punching
beyond its weight". We cant be diverted by
such "childish infant disorder".
We have to accept that South Africa, because of its
unique character, is a bridge between the:
Developed and developing countries
Between developing countries, - English speaking
French speaking. Between Sub-Saharan Africa and North
Africa (Afro-Arab Solidarity).
between Africa and Latin America
between Africa and Asia
After 6 years of a democratic government, we can confidently
say that we will not shy away from the role we must
play in international affairs because of fears of being
accused of acting like a "big brother".
The President has played a major role in ensuring that
the African developmental agenda is humanitys
agenda. His input in the Berlin; Commonwealth, Afro-Europe,
G-77, Scandinavian, European, G-8 and Millennium Summit
is internationally recognised.
Chairperson, today the world is constantly bombarded
with sensationalists and instant reporting of African
conflicts, African brutality, starving women and dying
children. The Afro sceptics and Afro pessimists are
daily re-enforced in their convictions that nothing
good can come out of Africa. The Washington Post in
an editorial said: "Africas apparent hopelessness
is now so widely accepted that it is in danger of becoming
a self-fulfilling prophecy". A BBC journalist who
was based in South Africa, George Alagiah, wrote, "
there is a lot of historical baggage to cut through
when reporting on Africa. The view of the continent
is infected with the prevailing view of the 19 th century".
Explorer John Speke in 1860s said "As his father
did, so does he. He works his wife, sells his children,
enslaves all he can lay his hands on, and unless fighting
for the lands of others contents himself with drinking,
singing and dancing like a baboon, to drive dull care
there are many for whom these words
still have resonance. He goes on to say, my job is to
give a fuller picture but I have a gnawing regret that
as a foreign corespondent I have done Africa a dis-service
by too often showing the continent at its worst and
too rarely showing it in its full flower. The Economist
article entitled the "Hopeless continent".
While correctly identifying some of the problems facing
the African continent, is a dangerous reflection of
the "historical baggage" that the BBC correspondent
was referring to.
This reflects the 19 th century stereotyping that was
so prevalent at that period and we Africans and indeed
the world cannot indulge in the luxury of such racialist
stereo typing sceptism and despondency. It is our task
to constructively and critically examine the challenges
and problems facing Africa. We must do so by dealing
with the root causes of our problems and putting this
in the proper context. We must also have a better understanding
of the positive developments in our continent.
Historically and especially in the post colonial period
our leaders in Africa spoke of Africas contributions
to the very evolution of life and also of ancient times
when Africa was the leading centre of learning, technology
and culture. They were referring to the increasing discovery
of evidence, which points to Africas primacy in
the historical evolution of human kind; they were referring
to the magnificent courts of Mali and Timbuktu in the
15th and 16th centuries, to the works of rogue art in
South Africa that are thousands of years old, to the
artistic artworks of the Nubians and Egyptians, to the
sculptured stones of Aksum in Ethiopia, the pyramids
of Egypt; the city of Carthage in Tunisia and the ancient
universities of Egypt, Morocco and Mali. Those leaders
called for the African awakening to restore this legacy.
I strongly believe that the post-colonial leaders in
Africa who raised the issue of the African renewal were
sacrificed on the altar of the Cold War.
Today, in the absence of the Cold War, we are in a
better position to take up the challenge of the African
renewal. We have to ask some questions - why is Africa,
which occupied such a place in the evolution of humanity,
faced with the reality that despite our enormous potential
and riches, the greatest number of the least developed
countries of the world, found in Africa? [A startling
33 of the 42 of the worlds poorest countries are
found in Sub-Saharan Africa.]
Why is it that in the majority of the African countries
economic progress has performed so badly or declined?
Why has Africa lost its share of the world markets?
Since the fifties, it fell from more than 3 % to less
than 2 % in the mid 90s and if South Africa is
taken out of the equation the figure of Africas
contribution to world trade is a mere 1.2 %. Why has
the cumulative terms of trade losses cost us almost
12 % of our GDP? Why are so many of our countries still
settled with severe debt problems? [In 1997 was estimated
to be 159 billion and in 1999 has increased to 201 billion
dollars] and we are faced with the reality that outstanding
external debts in many African countries exceed entire
GDP, and debt service requirements exceed 25 % of the
total export earnings. No HIPC African country can achieve
sustainable economic development if the debt issue is
Why are we still faced with the reality that overseas
development assistance has dropped more than one fifth
in real terms since 1992.
Finally, why has Africa, including South Africa, failed
to attract sufficient foreign investments? This is despite
the fact that many countries in Africa have taken steps
to create a climate conducive to foreign direct investment.
What the media doesnt report is that many countries
have now put in place trade liberalization policies,
the strengthening of the rule of law, improvements in
legal and other instruments as well as greater investment
in infrastructure development, privatization, greater
accountability and transparency, greater degree of financial
and budgetary discipline and the creation and consolidation
of multi-party democracies. Investments in Africa earn
the highest earnings on investments anywhere else in
the world - 29%. But all of this has not resulted in
foreign direct investments into Africa.
The dire consequences of the African reality is that
sub-Saharan African is the worlds poorest region;
with about half the population living on less than $1
a day. Average income is lower than in 1970. Saving
are close to zero. Diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis,
HIV/Aids are rampant. Electrical power consumption per
person is the lowest in the world; Africa has 14 telephone
lines per 1,00 Tokyo has more telephones to Africa continent
and less than half of 1 percent of all Africans have
used the internet. Today, Africa which missed out on
the industrial revolution, is in danger or being excluded
from the world global technological and information
We have also to confront the shocking reality that
from Sierra Leone to Angola, from the streets of the
DRC to Sudan, from the killing fields of Ethiopia and
Eritrea, to the killing fields of Rwanda and Somalia
violent conflicts have become the scourge of our continent.
We cannot accept the fact that over the past three decades
over 8 million Africans have perished in the fires of
ethnic and racial hatred, religious intolerance, political
ambition and material greed. We cannot accept the fact
that over 15 million refugees and displaced persons
live in terrible conditions. This is the highest number
of refugees anywhere in the world. We cannot accept
the fact that landmines are indiscriminately planted,
injuring and killing innocent citizens and that the
infrastructure of many countries is systematically destroyed
and their agricultural land laid to waste. Kofi Annan,
" In intra-state conflicts in Africa, the main
aim increasingly is the destruction not only of armies
but of civilians and entire ethnic groups, preventing
such wars is no longer a matter of defending states
or protecting allies, it is a matter of defending humanity
itself". South Africa as one of the relatively
advanced developed countries in the African continent
has a responsibility to ensure that all our activities,
in the context of the Africa Renaissance is aimed to
bring about peace and stability on the African continent.
We should look at some root cause of conflicts:
"Winner takes all" mentality
Power of elite and marginalisation of masses
International competition for Africas resources
The World Bank and other studies found that Africa's
economies are generally characterised by narrow commodity
exports with little beneficiation of diversification,
therefore highly vulnerable to market fluctuations in
demand and commodity prices. Primary markets limited
to the North, to which Africa countries highly dependent
for its imports; large rurally based agricultural population,
engaged in subsistence economy, alongside a weakly developed
large urban based economy; weak macro economic policies
and management principles combined with low skills,
low productivity, corruption and lack of regulatory
frameworks, lack of reliable socio-economic data. Therefore,
there is a unstable environment for sustainable economic
growth and development; weak infrastructure in most
sectors, interactive, industrial, manufacturing, services,
socio-economic, legal, transport, communications and
information technology. Majority have rurally based
subsistence economies with under developed agro-industrial
sectors; land is often communally owned and characterized
by poor infrastructure, environmental degradation with
unsustainable energy resources.
Why faced with this reality are we confident that we
can achieve an African Rennaisance?
"There exists within our continent a generation
which has been victim to all things which created the
negative past. This generation remains African and carries
with it a historic pride which compels it to seek a
place for Africans equal to all other peoples or our
I believe that the new African
generations have learned and are learning from the experiences
of the past. I further belief that they are unwilling
to continue to repeat the wrongs that have occurred"
Regional integration is a sine qua non for the continents
renewal. Therefore SADC is the foundation on which we
seek to make the 21st Century an African Century.
The aim of SADC is to create a Community providing
for regional peace and security, sector cooperation
and an integrated regional economy. As a regional institution
it has laid the basis for regional planning and development
in southern Africa. SADC forms one of the building blocks
of the African Economic Community (AEC).
Our vision for the Southern African region is one of
the highest possible degree of economic cooperation,
mutual assistance where necessary and joint planning
of regional development, development of basic infrastructure,
the development of our human resources and the creation
of the necessary capacity to drive this complicated
process forward, as well as the urgent need for peace,
democracy and good governance to be established throughout
The countries of the Southern Africa regional can achieve
their full potential only through close cooperation
in the exploitation of natural resources in a coordinated
fashion, the pooling of technical expertise, the armonisation
of trade practices and the promotion of economies of
scale. This is one of the principal tasks of the SADC.
The SADC Free Trade Protocol, implemented on the 1st
September is an important step to achieve integration.
Other sub-regional groupings such as ECOWAS and COMESA
have also taken decisions to accelerate their integration
process. This undoubtedly will open up new possibilities
for sustainable development in the region and the continent.
The increased development of our common Transport,
Electricity and Telecommunications infrastructures will
also accelerate the economic development of the Continent.
Chairperson, the SADC Region does not function in isolation.
In this regard it needs to form partnerships with the
rest of the international community which will significantly
increase its chances of success. Europe as a strategic
partner has a major role to play. Europes share
of the worlds GDP amounts to 25% and it accounts
for 20% of world trade.
In this respect, SA is a member of the 3-country steering
committee driving the Berlin initiative, which strives
to foster closer cooperation between the European Union
and SADC. Priority issues that are included under this
initiative are the consolidation of democracy in the
Southern African region, combating illicit drug trafficking,
clearance and landmines, regional integration, promotion
of Trade and Investment and combating HIV/AIDS.
Chairperson, Africas commitment to change is
reflected, inter alia, by
the decisions of the Algiers Summit of the OAU, July
1999, which called for the year of peace; the condemnation
of coups and the decision to prevent any country, which
had carried out a coup since 1997, from participating
in the OAU; [the delegations of Cote dVoire
and Comores were not allowed to participate in the last
OAU Summit in Togo because of their unconstitutional
change of government; the decisions to tackle issues
such as corruption, terrorism, international criminal
syndicates an environmental degradation.
the decisions of the extraordinary summit of the OAU
held in Sitre, Libya, which called for a frank assessment
of the organisational structures and work of the OAU
the decisions at the last OAU Summit to establish an
African Union and to initiate discussions on the formation
of an African Parliament.
The African Union is a merging of the political and
economic tasks confronting the OAU. The new structures
Assembly of Heads of State and Government which is
the supreme organ. It will meet at least once a year.
Chairman will be elected by the Summit.
Executive Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs or
Specialised technical units. Composed of ministers
and senior officials
Committee on rural economy and agricultural matters
Committee on Monetary and financial matters
Committee on trade, customs and immigration matters
3.4Committee on Industry, Science and technology, energy,
natural resources and environment.
Committee on Transport, communications and Tourism
Committee on Health, Labour and social affairs
Committee on Education, culture and Human resources.
Other institutions envisaged
Pan African Parliament
Court of Justice
African Central Bank
African Monetary Bank
African Investment Bank
A secretariat of the Union
Permanent Representative of Committee of Ambassadors
based in Addis Ababa
A advisory organisation on economic social and cultural
council composed of NGOs
BEN OKRI - AN AFRICAN EULOGY
"We are the miracles that God made to taste the
bitter fruit of time/we are precious/and one day our
suffering will turn into the wonders of the earth".
To make this dream come true what do we do?
I am reminded of what President Mbeki said at the historical
1st ever Africa-Europe Summit. "Summit will "have
meaning only to the extent that all of without exceptions,
wage the struggle to end human suffering in Africa with
the passionate intensity of the humanistic who have
given dignity to despised human beings, while others
were happy to enclose themselves within the little worlds
of selective and false fulfilment".
The objective of South Africas foreign policy
is to ensure that millions of people, throughout the
world, join us in the trenches of humanity.