Declaration by the EU / Southern African Ministerial Conference of 5/6 September 1994 in Berlin


1. The European Union and the Southern African Development Community (SADC):

- Reaffirming the universal values and ideals which are shared by their peoples and governments and which have their expression in the respect of human dignity;

- Expressing their conviction that the protection and promotion of human rights are a cornerstone of democratic societies and that the effective exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms is the legitimate concern of the international community and inseparable from the pursuit of international peace and security;

- Recalling their commitment to build, consolidate, and strengthen democratic institutions founded on accountability, transparency, good governance, and the rule of law;

- Recognising that peace and security are essential prerequisites for sustainable economic and social development;

- Mindful of historical, political, cultural and economic links between Europe and the Southern African region;

- Recalling the long standing cooperation between the two regions as expressed in bilateral and multilateral frameworks, in particular the Lome Convention;

- Welcoming the demise of apartheid in South Africa and the successful transition to multi-party democracy across the region which opens up new perspectives for Southern Africa;

- Bearing in mind the ongoing peace processes in Angola and Mozambique and reiterating their commitment to support transition to multi-party democracy in those countries;

- Desirous of promoting national reconstruction, regional cooperation and integration in Southern Africa;

- Recognising that the Southern African region has a substantial development potential through closer cooperation;

Have decided to enter into a comprehensive dialogue to further the development of relations between the two regions, taking into account other bilateral and multilateral arrangements and without prejudice to the Lome Convention.


2. The European Union and the SADC solemnly reaffirm their determination to reinforce their relationship and to establish a comprehensive dialogue with a view to:

- Working together to uphold at different fora the purpose and principles of the UN charter;

- Supporting democracy at all levels and the rule of law, respect for human rights and protection of minorities, promotion of social justice and good governance and working together to create adequate conditions to eliminate poverty and all forms of racial, political, religious, cultural, linguistic and gender discrimination;

- Encouraging the reduction of armaments and, in particular, associating themselves with efforts to exercise restraint in exporting armaments to areas where they are likely to exacerbate conflict;

- Supporting an open and increasingly productive and equitable international economy and, in this context, promoting cooperation in trade with and in the Southern African region, in order to enhance its economic development;

- Promoting and facilitating domestic and foreign investment in the productive sectors particularly in the processing and manufacturing industries in the Southern African region to enhance the region's economic development;

- Encouraging policies aimed at sustainable economic growth for mutual benefit of the populations of and supporting the economic reforms underway, in the Southern African region;

- Promoting harmonious economic development through environmentally sound and sustainable management of human and natural resources;

- Promoting interregional cooperation through the fostering of contacts in the fields of culture, education and sciences, sport and socio-cultural activities; and

- Bearing in mind the need to promote the SADC principles of equity, balance, and mutual benefit in the Southern African Region.


3. Political Dialogue

Political dialogue between the European Union and the countries of the Southern African region will consist of a regular exchange of views on general matters of foreign policy, particularly with a view to promote peace and long term stability in the Southern African region.

4. Regional Integration

The European Union offers to share experience in the field of regional integration and in this respect to assist SADC inter alia, through exchange of personnel, training, assistance and advice on organisational matters.

5. Trade and Economic Cooperation

The Parties undertake to promote trade cooperation with, and within the Southern African region in order to foster its economic development, in full respect of the results of the Uruguay Round of GATT, and without prejudice to the Lome Convention.

In this context the Parties will promote the development of a long term closer economic cooperation in Southern Africa.

The Parties note and welcome cross-border initiatives to facilitate regional investment and payments in the interest of more economic cohesion of the Southern African region.

6. Private Investment, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Promotion of the Private Sector

The Parties recognise the key role of domestic and foreign private investment and the private sector in the promotion of economic and social development of the Southern African region. Special emphasis should be given to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

The Parties underline that, apart from political stability, essential conditions for promotion of domestic and foreign investment are a favourable investment climate, resulting from the development and extension of market economy structures, the removal of bureaucratic barriers, and the assurance of legal security. In this context, the Parties undertake to promote the conclusion of bilateral agreements between the Member States of the EU and the SADC Member States for investment protection.

7. Development Cooperation

The Parties declare their intention to closely coordinate the planning and implementation of regional development programmes and projects in the fields such as transport and communications, energy, trade promotion, livestock protection, poverty alleviation, population and social development, food security, education, training and health.

In this context, they note that under the terms of articles 157 and 164 of the Fourth Lome Convention, it is possible to include a neighbouring non-ACP country in regional cooperation projects.

The Parties reiterate the importance of the coordinating role of the European Commission and the SADC Secretariat in this respect.

Concerning the above-mentioned areas of cooperation, the Parties in particular agree as follows:

- Transport and Communications

The Parties reiterate the importance of the development of the transport and communications cooperation in the Southern African region as a major instrument for the promotion of investment and economic growth.

- Energy

The Parties reaffirm the key role which cooperation in the field of energy with and within the Southern African region can play in fostering the region's economic development.

- Education and Training

The Parties reiterate the importance of training and education for the overall development of Southern Africa. In this respect, they underline their continued support for this sector. In particular, they underline the importance of continued and intensified vocational training and public administration programmes.

- Health

The Parties agree that primary health care and the control of serious diseases, such as AIDS and endemic tropical diseases, are important areas of coordination. They, therefore, recognise that coordinated efforts to combat them require the full support of the European Union and the countries of southern Africa.

- Food and Agriculture

The Parties recognise that agriculture remains the mainstay of the economies of most SADC member States. Furthermore, they accept that Food Security depends on sustainable agriculture. They, therefore, undertake to enhance their cooperation in this field.

- Mining

The Parties recognise that mining constitutes a strategic sector for most SADC member States. They also recognise that great scope exists for close regional cooperation in the exploration, beneficiation and manufacturing of mining equipment. They, therefore, agree to promote cooperation in this area for mutual benefit.

8. Natural Resources and the Environment

The Parties recognise the importance of global environment, and conservation of natural resources.

The European Union undertakes to support the Southern African efforts in such fields as:

- fight against desertification and soil erosion;

- water resources management;

- sustainable agriculture;

- management of natural resources.

9. Science and Technology

The Parties agree to intensify scientific and technological cooperation both with and within the SADC region. Possible areas of such cooperation may include:

- promotion of the utilisation of regional resources compatible with the environment;

- industrial research and development;

- ecological research;

- agricultural research;

- energy technology, especially new and renewable resources;

- water processing technology;

- tropical medicine.

10. Tourism

The Parties underline the major contribution which tourism can make to development. In this regard, they note the remarkable opportunities offered by the Southern African region. In this context, they agree that stable political conditions, the removal of bureaucratic barriers, and a well functioning infrastructure are important for the development of tourism.

11. Cultural Cooperation

The Parties agree to foster contacts in the fields of culture, education and science, especially cooperation between institutions of higher learning, sports and socio-cultural organisations.

12. Cooperation in the Combating of International Crime

The Parties undertake to cooperate closely in the fight against international crime, including in particular, arms smuggling, illicit cultivation, trafficking and consumption of drugs, money laundering and illegal dumping of toxic waste.

13. Other Areas

Other areas of cooperation may be included upon mutual agreement.


14. The Parties agree to continue their comprehensive dialogue and commit their respective competent institutions to make appropriate proposals to follow-up the Conference.

The exchange of personnel between both sides could be an early follow-up measure to strengthen dialogue and provide expertise for the institutional development of the Southern African region.

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