Issue 05 | 18 August 2017  
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The 37th Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is taking place from 9 – 20 August 2017 in Pretoria, South Africa.
  South Africa, as incoming chair of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), is hosting the 37th Ordinary SADC Summit of Heads of State and Government from 19 – 20 August 2017 under the theme: "Partnering with the Private Sector in Developing Industry and Regional Value Chains".
At the Summit, South African President Jacob Zuma, will take over as chairperson of SADC from King Mswati III of Swaziland. South Africa will chair SADC until August 2018. South Africa last chaired the Summit from 2008 – 2009 and the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence and Security from 2011 – 2012 and 2014 – 2015.

In a statement following its meeting on 16 August, the South African Cabinet said South Africa would use its position to strategically advance the country's national interests as outlined in the National Development Plan, drive regional and continental industrialisation and integration to boost the implementation of Africa Agenda 2063 of the African Union. Agenda 2063 is the strategic framework for the socio-economic transformation of the continent over the next 50 years. It builds on and seeks to accelerate the implementation of past and existing continental initiatives for growth and sustainable development.

Three potential growth paths, namely agro-processing, mineral beneficiation and downstream processing value chains, have been identified. The summit will also pay tribute to the outgoing President José Eduardo dos Santos of Angola, who will be stepping down after 37 years as President and leading his country out of a protracted civil war.
The Double Troika Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) will be held in the afternoon of 18 August. This Summit will be preceded by the ministerial troika meeting and senior officials meeting.

The SADC Organ on Politics Defence and Security is managed on a Troika basis and is responsible for promoting peace and security in the SADC region. It is mandated to steer and provide Member states with direction regarding matters that threaten peace, security and stability in the region.

It is coordinated at the level of Summit, consisting of a Chairperson, Incoming Chairperson and Outgoing Chairperson, and reports to the SADC Summit Chairperson.

The SADC Summit and Organ Troika Summit are mutually exclusive; and, the Chairperson of the Organ does not simultaneously hold the Chair of the Summit. The Organ structure, operations and functions are regulated by the Protocol on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation. Like the Summit chair, the Organ chair rotates on an annual basis. Current Troika of Summit
  • Kingdom of Swaziland (Current Chair)
  • Republic of South Africa (Incoming Chair)
  • Republic of Botswana (Outgoing Chair)
Current Troika of the Organ on Politics Defence and Security Cooperation
  • United Republic of Tanzania (Current Chair)
  • Republic of Angola (Incoming Chair)
  • Republic of Mozambique (Outgoing Chair)
Together these two Troikas are known as the Double Troika.

South Africa's Deputy President, Cyril Ramaphosa, in his capacity as the SADC Facilitator to the Kingdom of Lesotho, is expected to table a report to the SADC Double Troika Summit, where the Lesotho Government is also expected to table a reforms roadmap.

This follows the consultations between the Deputy President with the new government, leaders of opposition parties, the college of chiefs and civil society stakeholders in the Kingdom, charting the path for the full implementation of SADC decisions on constitutional and security sector reforms.
Heads of State and Government started arriving from 16 August for the 37th SADC Summit.
Dr Kingsley Makhubela
Chief Executive Officer
Brand South Africa

"Africa Rising" is frequently discussed at most business, investment and global economic forums and refers to the continent's wealth of potential, resources including human capital, and the large emerging consumer markets which make Africa an increasingly attractive and competitive destination.

Africa has historically stood on the periphery of global politics, investment and development issues. However, over the past decade the continent has been on an upward trend prioritising critical development issues and socio-economic growth relationships with other regions and continents.

Addressing this marginalisation, and with a view to enabling Africa to claim its place among the global community of nations, is the Southern African Development Community's (SADC) Summit - a platform that aspires towards greater regional integration.

The SADC Summit provides an opportunity for key regional business, investment, trade, development and governance players to meet, discuss and workshop ideas to tackle the unique African challenges. The Summit also provides an opportunity to tap into the rich potential of Africa's young human capital which will yield great benefits for all who invest in the continent's development.
With the 37th Ordinary SADC Summit of Heads of State and Government currently under way in Pretoria until August 20, under the theme "Partnering with the Private Sector in Developing Industry and Regional Value Chains", South Africa as the host country is utilising the environment to further deepen co-operation with member states, the continent and the world in order to take full advantage of trade, investment and development opportunities provided for the African continent and our people.

Driven by regional integration that represents not only a united SADC region, but also a unified Africa, the SADC's political leadership seeks to strengthen mutually beneficial relationships with the international community, with the view to rationalising these partnerships to enhance the benefits of Africa's transformation and integration efforts with the world.
This will be determined by increased trade and investment between African states, such as the Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) that aims to connect the SADC, the East African Community (EAC), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa), to frame a free trade area that spans 26 countries from the Cape to Cairo.

This form of regional integration enables countries to overcome the obstacles represented by their relatively small domestic markets, by enabling producers to realise greater economies of scale and benefit from the establishment of regional infrastructures. Globalisation and the advances in the information technology sector have provided unprecedented opportunities for countries and regions with the right policies to make significant advances and lift huge sections of populations out of poverty, improve incomes and catalyse economic and social transformations.

The regional approach also allows countries to assert their interests from a stronger and more confident position in the international arena, and requires us to invest in regional value chains to transition from commodity-dependent to value-addition, knowledge-intensive and industrialised economies.

Contextually, Africa is inspiring change through inclusive political and socio-economic reforms compelled by the shared values of ownership, leadership and partnerships, based on the AU vision of "an integrated, forward-looking, prosperous, dynamic and peaceful Africa, representing a dynamic force in global arena." Making substantial advancements in governance policies has led to sound macro-economic performance despite the adverse impact of the current global financial and economic crises.
  Notwithstanding the impact of the global financial and economic crisis on Africa, the continent has been growing at unprecedented rates, re-affirming its commitment to global and balanced partnerships with the international community as the continent's vision lends credence to its potential for growth and development.

South Africa is taking over from Swaziland as the chair of the SADC from this month to August 2018, and will pursue to position the region's potential to serve as a fundamental contributor to Africa's economic recovery and stability by becoming a beacon of growth, investment and development. We will continue to work together to ensure economic growth, development and investment in respective member states and within our region.

The unprecedented high-level political will and involvement by African Heads of State and Governments, and the rest of the world in creating conditions for sustainable development, progress for new growth and investment prospects and implementing Africa's socio-economic development programmes sets the tone for ensuring favourable global trade and investment relations.

Our natural resource-rich continent, steady population growth rates, the rise of the black middle class, as well as improved governance and business settings in many African countries, are giving rise to Africa's growing recognition as an evolving market that is shaping up to be an ideal investment destination.

Within the present-day global context, Africa is faced with a plethora of factors that present great development and investment opportunities and South Africa is confident that the spirit of partnership within SADC will permeate the corridors of the 2017 SADC Summit as we work together to find solutions towards the strengthening sustainable development in the region, for Africa and the world-at-large.
  When SADC stepped in to support peace efforts in Madagascar, its efforts were carried out in the local spirit of fihavanana, which emphasises the kinship and mutual respect between all Malagasy people.

Hugues Rotoarimanana's business buys plants, herbs and other raw materials from around Madagascar and turns them into essential oils. Cinnamon, cloves, ylang-ylang, and rare plants like katrafay – which can only be found in Madagascar – are loaded into boilers so that their essence can be extracted and used to infuse oils for the finished products sold to Rotoarimanana's European clients.

But in 2009, the then two-year-old business faced its greatest challenge: a political crisis that turned Malagasy society upside down, disrupting the social and political order. Because of the instability in the country, Rotoarimanana's international investors pulled out of the business, leaving his livelihood in jeopardy.
In an attempt to return the region to peace and stability, international bodies, championed by SADC, began to put pressure on the unconstitutional government.

"SADC has a set of processes and mechanisms to deal with situations that threaten the peace and stability in the region," says Jorge Cardoso, Director of the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation.

"It operates at the level of heads of states. There is a head of state that is nominated annually to follow the political processes in our region. The peaceful resolution of conflicts is one of the main premises to address situations that occur in our Member States," says Cardoso.
The organ was established through the Protocol on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation in 2001. The protocol affirms SADC's commitment to regional stability with the objective to "protect the people and safeguard the development of the region against instability arising from the breakdown of law and order".

In March 2009, after the unconstitutional takeover, SADC suspended the membership of Madagascar. The African Union (AU), the United States and other parts of the international community suspended their aid to Madagascar. Three months later, the AU and the United Nations halted their mediation efforts, citing a lack of will on either side to seek reconciliation.

A week later, SADC dispatched former Mozambican President Joaquim Chissano as the leader of a team tasked with mediating a peace process and creating a roadmap towards solving the crisis.

 "When Chissano came here, he came with the mindset of not only working with civil society organisations, but also to listen to what has been done here on the ground, what is happening," says Rasolo Andre, a former diplomat and now a lecturer in Political Sociology at the University of Antananarivo.

"It's important because when they allowed the Malagasy people to take part in the decision-making, they enhanced the sustainability of the outcome. Also, they came here to facilitate the process. They were involved as facilitators but leaving the Malagasy approach to take place at all times," he adds.

The SADC intervention led to the establishment of a roadmap, which emphasised that peace needed to be restored. This led to the creation of a national dialogue process which came to be called mallgacho-malgache (Malagasy with the Malagasy). With SADC's support, it eventually led to an agreement that peaceful elections would take place in 2013 in which no former presidents could take part.

The period of disruption ended when in December 2013, Hery Rajaonarimampianina was elected to the presidency. The elections were declared free and fair by international observers. The following month, Madagascar was reinstated as a SADC member, and international aid returned to the island.

Addressing the African Union Peace and Security Council, SADC's Executive Secretary Dr Stergomena Lawrence Tax said at the time: "SADC appeals to the African Union, the United Nations and other similar bodies to welcome the positive steps that Madagascar has made through the recent peaceful transparent and fair elections and to spare no effort at ensuring that democracy and the rule of law are enhanced in Southern Africa."

Andre attributes the success of the peace process in no small part to the concept of fihavanana. Fihavanana originates from the Malagasy word havana, meaning kin, and emphasises the kinship of all Malagasy people, and the "It was really good that SADC worked with the AU, because that gave the Malagasy people confidence that they are not just this island, that they have sisters and brothers and they are part of Africa," says Andre, the former diplomat. "SADC was the door which led the Malagasy people to understand that they live in the African continent and that they are not alone."

With the next elections due to take place in 2018, the hope is that Madagascar will maintain its stability in the future. For now, the peace brought about by the negotiations has allowed the Malagasy people time to rebuild. Investors have gained confidence again to return to the private sector.

For Rotoarimanana, peace allowed his business to regain its strength. Near Antananarivo, at the plant of one of his suppliers, a pile of burnt cinnamon leaves a sweet smell wafting around the premises – the boilers are once again producing the rare oils unique to Madagascar.
  The Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area contains a world-class tourism product and provides the means to sustain it.

Deep in the heart of the SADC region, the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) – a wildlife conservation area on a massive scale – is creating a unique platform for conservation of the region's natural resources.

Within the Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe, at the south-eastern tip of the KAZA TFCA, the Trans-Kalahari Predator Project uses a remarkable approach to restore the relationship between local residents and lions.

The project equips community members with a cellphone for communication, a bicycle for mobility and a vuvuzela, a traditional African instrument, for making noise. These people, known as the Long Shields, then ride out with guidance from satellite data to make noise, driving the lions away from livestock owned by communities within Hwange. In doing so, they reduce conflicts between the predators and the residents of the KAZA TFCA.

"When lions kill livestock, that impacts negatively on communities. When the local people see a cow or a goat or a donkey, they see their bank accounts. They can sell a cow for a few hundred dollars and send their child to school, "says Lovemore Sibanda, the Project Coordinator of the Long Shields Lion Guardian Programme. "Our latest research suggests that retaliatory killing by farmers is the biggest cause of lion decline in Hwange."

"We often go to park management and alert them when there is a 'problem animal'. We go out with our vuvuzelas and they go out with their rifles, and because we coordinate our actions we find that we are successful in chasing lions (away)."

As humans have pushed further into the migratory routes and dispersal areas of large mammals, there has been a decline in those species. The number of lions in Africa decreased from an estimated 450 000 in the 1940s to barely more than 20 000 today. Between 3 000 and 4 000 of these live in the KAZA TFCA.

"Wildlife contributes massively to the region's socio-economic development," says Dr Paul Funston, the Senior Director of Lion and Cheetah Programmes for Panthera. "Lions are the number one species that tourists want to see in Africa. In areas where you have a photographic tourism industry, a lion could be worth about USD 100,000 over its lifetime."

SADC Member States moved to protect these ecologically and economically important animals through the conversation area. The heads of state of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe signed the KAZA Treaty in 2011. The treaty expanded and combined existing conservation areas in each member state, leading to the establishment of one of the world's largest conservation areas.

With 36 national parks and game reserves covering 520,000 square kilometres – almost the size of Botswana – the KAZA TFCA today is the world's largest transfrontier conservation area. It houses some of the region's most spectacular tourist attractions, ranging from Victoria Falls at the Zambia-Zimbabwe border to the Okavango Delta.

SADC's support has also led to the harmonisation of policy and cross-border regulations as well as to the development of infrastructure in the TFCA. Combined with the introduction of the SADC Univisa, this allows tourists to move more easily between the different attractions.  

"There are a number of crossborder tourism products that are being developed in transfrontier conservation areas," says Deborah Kahatano, the Senior Programme Officer for Natural Resources and Wildlife at the SADC Secretariat.

"I see conservation and tourism as two sides of the same coin," she adds. "Our tourism in Southern Africa is dependent on wildlife so without nature conservation, tourism would lose its most prominent product. And without tourism, there would not be sufficient financial resources available to fund the required conservation efforts."

"As a region, we need to enhance these resources so we are able to share the benefits," says Kahatano.

A key aspect of the TFCA approach is the protection of natural ecosystems, which transcend national boundaries.

"If I were to look at a map of Africa and draw circles around areas with major conservation potential, I would draw fourteen circles, and twelve of them would be TFCAs. So it would immediately be clear that learning to conserve across state boundaries is crucial to the survival of high value species like elephants and lions in Africa," says Dr Funston.

"KAZA is one of the great opportunities for research and conservation. It's bigger, it's more complex, and if we can learn how to do it here, surely we can apply those lessons to other areas in Africa."
Taking care of the region's water resources requires an integrated approach to water management. It's a lesson shared by ORASECOM's four members – Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa – who are restoring the Lesotho Wetlands to keep the Orange-Senqu River alive.

When rain falls over the Lesotho highlands, 3 500 metres above sea level, it flows into the OrangeSenqu River – one of the largest rivers in Africa. Over a distance of 2 200km it winds its way through South Africa and Namibia, with tributaries stretching into Botswana.

Throughout its course the river plays a vital economic role for local people. In the highlands of Lesotho where dams have been erected to create hydropower, the sale of the headwaters of the Orange-Senqu generates 33% of Lesotho's Gross Domestic Product. And as it flows through Gauteng, it contributes to 26% of South Africa's economy.

The riparian system of the Orange-Senqu is maintained by the wetlands of the Lesotho highlands. The wetlands absorb water during rainy season and release it into the river system periodically, supporting a steady flow and mitigating the effects of both flooding and drought downstream.


However, in recent years, degradation of the wetlands has reduced their capacity to retain and release water. This has risked the flow of water throughout the entire riparian system.

"We are aware that our grasslands are deteriorating and that there is a shortage of water," says Mpiti Letse, Chief of the Ha Tlhaku village in the Khubelu Wetland of Lesotho. "There is a plant called Diphophotho which used to grow in our fields but has stopped growing due to the unwanted weeds. We are trying to make sure that there is drinking water for both us and our livestock, and that the water in the Qoadi River flows because it feeds the Senqu River, which is the river of the nation."

In 2000, SADC member states signed the Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in the interest of better managing the region's shared water resources. The protocol saw the creation of a number of bodies, among them the Orange-Senqu River Commission (ORASECOM), which exists to manage the Orange-Senqu river system among the four countries that are part of it: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa.

"There are 15 shared watercourses in SADC, each with their own issues," says Phera Ramoeli, SADC's Senior Programme Officer for Water. "ORASECOM has a number of successful initiatives. They now have a fully-fledged water resource management strategy, which takes into account all of their initiatives to ensure that water resources of the Orange-Senqu are managed to avoid potential conflict between nations."

One potential source of conflict is the overgrazing in the Lesotho wetlands, which is beginning to have negative effects on the resources downstream. The Protection of the Orange-Senqu Water Sources (Sponge) project works with Lesotho's Department of Range Resources Management and the Department of Water Affairs to address the wetland's degradation through a technique known as holistic grazing management.

"According to the 2006 census, we had 70 000 animal units in Lesotho," says Dr Rats'ele Rats'ele, Director of the Department of Range Resources Management. An animal unit refers to the rough mass of one cattle or the equivalent weight of smaller livestock.

"Each animal unit requires eight hectares of land to graze each year (in order) to prevent degradation of the land," he says. "However, we have only two million hectares of grazing land, so if you do the math you see we need an area almost three times the size of Lesotho for our cattle."

The Sponge project works with the residents of the wetlands to establish grazing associations composed of stakeholders within the wetlands.

One technique implemented by the grazing associations is called high-density grazing. In the past, cattle herders allowed cattle to range freely during the day, leaving them to eat only the more palatable plants of their choosing. This accelerated the decimation of these plants and created a void in the environment, leading to the degradation of the rangelands. By implementing high density grazing, herders restrict the cattle's grazing to limited areas, giving depleted plants in other areas time to regrow.

"We are practising rotational grazing/farming with the hopes of keeping all the grasslands in a good condition," says Chief Letse. "The benefits of rotational grazing will be evident during the winter season because there will still be sufficient food for our livestock. Another benefit is that it prevents soil erosion during heavy rains or windy days."

By keeping the wetlands functional, all four Orange-Senqu countries benefit from improved grazing management by herders in the Lesotho mountains.

The Sponge project is also seeing an impact on the lives of those in the grazing associations. Before the project, farmers expected gestation rates of 30 to 40% in cattle, but now farmers involved in the grazing associations report 100% gestation rates. Others report substantially higher yields of wool and mohair from flocks of sheep and goats.

"When the project first started only a few grazing associations wanted to take part," says the Head of the Water Resources Division of the Lesotho Department of Water Affairs, Dr Makomereng Fanana.

"Now just about all the grazing associations want to take part. Even communities from as far away as Maseru (300 km away) are approaching our offices for training," he says. The number of grazing associations wanting to get involved has already exceeded all expectations.

"This shows the success that is coming from Khubelu," says Dr Fanana. "We look forward to upscaling [the project] to the rest of the country. We have a realistic shot at saving the wetlands; we have a winning formula."

And this winning formula shows that complex problems affecting people across national boundaries can be solved by people on the ground working together – to create a solution with regional benefits.
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Editor: Delien Burger
Picture Editor: Jacoline Schoonees
Design and layout: Gladwin Komane


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